Western Sahara back to Square One? Instead, the United States has consistently pursued a policy which has unashamedly favored Morocco over the independence of the people of Western Sahara.
Unfortunately, tensions between the two States carried on and rekindled the conflict in Western Sahara. Thousands of Moroccan troops had already marched across the border in the north and a smaller number of Mauritanian troops had arrived in the south and Polisario began to mount a guerilla campaign against them, successfully countering Moroccan and Mauritanian forces to the point where they forced the weaker Mauritanian forces to withdraw by August Durch, ; Pennel, They do, though, appear to represent an escalation on both sides.
As a result, the land borders between the two neighboring countries have been closed ever since. The third section will demonstrate how the competing interests and alliances of the Moroccan, Spanish, Algerian, French and American states have added to the complication of the conflict and are largely responsible for the prolonged stalemate that has resulted.
These weapons were restricted for use only within the borders of Morocco though they have been consistently used during Moroccan military operations in Western Sahara. As this conflict receives limited international attention, the recent book Western Sahara: United by the fight against French colonialism, Morocco and Algeria became political and diplomat rivals after their respective independence.
In addition, French oil giant TotalFinaElf signed a contract with Morocco in which gave them the right to explore for oil off the coast of Western Sahara Whitfield, The Moroccan occupation was met by a nascent Sahrawi that is, from Western Sahara independence movement that eventually coalesced around the Polisario Front.
War, Nationalism and Conflict Irresolution is a welcome addition to the literature on both the region and conflict studies. At the heart of the dispute lies the question of who qualifies as a potential voter; the Polisario has insisted on only allowing those found on the Spanish Census lists see below to vote, while Morocco has insisted that the census was flawed by evasion and sought the inclusion of members of Sahrawi tribes which escape from Spanish invasion to the north of Morocco by the 19th century.
The inability to reach an agreement on borders and on Western Sahara troubles both Algeria and Morocco, but it also excludes bilateral or regional economic cooperation through the Arab Maghreb Union UMA — the organization founded by representatives of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania in — which sought to coordinate economic, political and security issues between the five founding states.
Chapter 4, the first of three on Sahrawi nationalism, manages the difficult task of synthesizing the historical rise of a national consciousness from Arabization through the end of colonial times.
As these three reports have indicated, the situation in Western Sahara continues to deteriorate over time while demonstrating increasingly little possibility of being resolved in the near future. The Green March was announced shortly after this decision was made public. As outlined by former US Ambassador Frank Ruddy in a speech at Georgetown University, the Moroccan government employed a number of discrediting tactics in an attempt to further impede the referendum process.
Polisario calls the territories under its control the Liberated Territories or the Free Zonewhile Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory and calls these lands its Southern Provinces.
The International Court of Justice granted self-determination to the Sahrawi people, but the referendum was postponed. As for the US, the Obama administration seems to be moving in a direction of neutrality, because the cooperation with Morocco and Algeria are both functional in attempt to prevent the development of Islamic terrorist organizations in the area, considered endangered by the Washington.
The overthrow of political regimes in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt should guide Rabat and Algiers to review their strategic role in Western Africa. Chapter 5 delves into Polisario and SADR organizational structures, as well as their policies and administration of the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, where the bulk of Sahrawi refugees live.
It is through the supply of military equipment, however, that the United States has most directly led to the prolongation of the conflict in Western Sahara.
Cease fire[ edit ] The cease fire ending hostilities was officially signed in The book is divided into three sections of three chapters each.
Bibliography can be recieved by request from author. Iran, which is embroiled in a diplomatic dispute with the U. A number of states possess significant interests in the Maghrebi region, both inside Morocco and Western Sahara, as well as in the region in its entirety.
Indeed, shortly after the Houston AgreementMorocco officially declared that it was "no longer necessary" to include an option of independence on the ballot, offering instead autonomy.
This explains the reason why the Spanish government promotes the dialogue with the Moroccan authorities to resolve the problem of illegal immigration and terrorism, sacrificing the support for the Front.
Instead, the United States has consistently pursued a policy which has unashamedly favored Morocco over the independence of the people of Western Sahara. While many say that progress will not be made until Morocco permits a referendum to be held, it would be more accurate and realistic to acknowledge the fact that progress will not be made until the interests and actions of Algeria, Spain, France and the United States change.
Morocco's occupation of the Western Sahara is "one of the most egregious yet most underchallenged affronts to the international system in existence today. The Plan provided that the Saharan people would manage democratically their own affairs, they would have the financial resources needed to develop the region in all areas and participate actively in the economic, social and cultural life of Morocco.
Before long, however, they began to see it as an accessory to occupation p. War, Nationalism and Conflict Irresolution is a welcome addition to the literature on both the region and conflict studies.
Central Intelligence Agency, The conflict over Western Sahara has not been resolved satisfactorily in international law in the eyes of the Polisario or the Kingdom of Morocco.
The proposed West Saharan independent state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is recognised by only nations. As this conflict receives limited international attention, the recent book Western Sahara: War, Nationalism and Conflict Irresolution is a welcome addition to the literature on both the region and conflict studies.
Co-authored by Stephen Zunes, chair of the University of San Francisco Middle Eastern Studies program and an authoritative voice on. The Western Sahara conflict is an ongoing conflict between the Polisario Front and the Kingdom of Morocco. The conflict is the continuation of the past insurgency by Polisario against the Spanish colonial forces in – and the subsequent Western Sahara War between the Polisario and Morocco (–).
Jun 11, · Western Sahara conflict impacts Morocco World Cup bid. The World Cup contest has been engulfed in intrigue about whether Donald Trump's rhetoric on immigration and foreign policy will.
Published: Mon, 01 May The conflict in Western Sahara was a dispute between Western Sahara (Frente Polisario) and Morocco which constitutes a big threat to regional stability after decolonization in by Spanish powers.
Unfortunately, tensions between the two States carried on and rekindled the conflict in Western Sahara . The controversy dispute over Western Sahara has its origins in when Morocco annexed the Western Sahara (known as the Spanish Sahara) when Spain relinquished it.Download